Séminaire d'Andreas PRINZING



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Le vendredi 20 janvier 2017 à 13h00, salle de conférences de l'OSUR, bâtiment 14b, Campus de Beaulieu, UR1

Le vendredi 20 janvier 2017 à 13h00, salle de conférences de l'OSUR, bâtiment 14b, Campus de Beaulieu, UR1

EvoEco Feedbacks: Ecological coexistence among related plants drives their evolution (and that of their herbivores)

 

Abstract:

In some plant lineages niches evolve slowly so that close relatives share similar niches. We have recently shown that sharing niches among close relatives increases their local coexistence which in turn affects the functioning of ecosystems. Does this ecological outcome of plant evolution feedback on the evolution of plants? Does it cascade on the evolution of interacting animals and fungi?

To partly and tentatively answer these questions I will present results on experimental studies of oaks and their interacting biota, and analyses of macroecological databases.

I will show that coexistence among closely related plants appears to feedback on plant evolution. First, coexisting close relatives impose specific selection pressures on plants: Traits that improve seedling fitness under closely related adult neighbours do not do so under distantly related neighbours, a selection pressure that is mediated via soil fungi. Moreover, genotypes that have been selected by closely related neigbourhoods have stronger morphological defenses against natural enemies (but lower chemical defenses). Finally, hybrids are favored by closely related neighbours.

Second, coexistence among closely related fosters taxonomic and functional diversification. Close relatives coexist or even attract each other in some lineages or habitats but not in others. Lineages of high coexistence among relatives show particular high hybridization and global species richness. Habitats of high coexistence among relatives show particular high rates of evolutionary trait divergence.

I will also show that coexistence among closely related plants appears to cascades on insect evolution. Comparing oaks coexisting with close relatives to oaks coexisting with distant relatives we found that: herbivorous click-beetle species are smaller, traits of mining moths respond differently to the environment, and life histories of chewing moth species vary little among trees. Overall, evolutionary proximity among coexisting host plants triggers evolutionary phenomena known from spatially proximate environments on a mainland and contrary more island-like evolution on evolutionary distance host.

Contact: Andreas PRINZING





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