Séminaire de David G. BIRON (Université Blaise Pascal, Clermont Ferrand)


Le vendredi 3 octobre 2014 à 13h00, en salle de conférences de l'OSUR, campus de Beaulieu, bât.

Le vendredi 3 octobre 2014 à 13h00, en salle de conférences de l'OSUR, campus de Beaulieu, bât. 14b, UR1

The deciphering and the understanding of strategies used by living organisms to ensure the success of their development in ecosystems

Résumé :
Many parasite taxa are able of altering a wide range of phenotypic traits of their hosts in ways that seem to improve the parasite’s chance of completing its life cycle. Alteration in host behaviour are classically seen as compelling illustrations of the “extended phenotype” concept suggesting that some parasite genes have phenotype effects on the host. For instance, several anecdotal reports in the literature have suggested that arthropods parasitized by hairworms and mermithids commit ’suicide’ by jumping into an aquatic environment needed by the adult worms for the continuation of their life cycle. However, the underlying mechanisms causing infected hosts to act in ways that benefit the parasite remain generally enigmatic. Proteomics have been used to lay the foundations of the understanding of some aspects of manipulation by parasites (i.e. proximate mechanisms, crosstalk and evolutive convergence) by using some arthropod host-parasite associations. These pioneer studies reveal new candidate genes and biochemical pathways potentially involved in the manipulative process. In this talk, the parasite manipulation hypothesis will be briefly presented. Secondly, proteomics results obtained on the manipulative process will be pointed out. I will present some additional considerations to move this work forwards. Future prospects for a new discipline in proteomics, the population proteomics, will be presented. This one could be used (i) to study the molecular crosstalk at population scale; (ii) to test ecological hypothesis on distribution range of species; (iii) to ecipher from the molecule to the habitat the taking-decisions to choice a microclimate ; (iv) the behavioural strategies used to reach microclimates. Finally, I will briefly present the application of proteomic tools to environmental problems for generating hypotheses regarding how xenobiotics could affect host-parasite associations in ecosystems.

Contact : David G. BIRON